Studied the role of internal pressure in DNA delivery by viruses, focusing on the tailed dsDNA bacteriophage family, including phages lambda, phi29, T5, and P22. We successfully measured the internal pressure of lambda at 20-25 atm and observed DNA ejection in real time, determining a velocity of up to 60 kbp/s. This kind of analysis required a variety of bulk and single-molecule techniques including theoretical modeling of phages at many levels.
Implemented the new technique Interactive Molecular Dynamics, interfacing molecular dynamics simulations to haptic force-feedback to allow users to literally feel simulated molecules. Contributed this feature to the source code of VMD and NAMD, the group's molecular visualization and simulation software, in parallel with scientific studies on the bacterial aquaglyceroporin GlpF and glycerol kinase.